Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Model (text-only)

(Text-only Version)

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The rows of the table (below) represent each of the six levels of the Cognitive Process Dimension—ranging from lower-order thinking skills at the bottom to higher-order thinking skills at the top. The columns represent the Knowledge Dimension—ranging from concrete at the left through abstract at the right.

Each cell of the table provides an example of a learning objective that corresponds generally to the intersection of the levels of the Cognitive Process and Knowledge dimensions of the taxonomy. The verb (in bold) refers to [actions associated with] the intended Cognitive Process. The object of each sentence (not bold) describes the Knowledge students are expected to acquire or construct.

The Knowledge Dimension

Factual

(The basic elements a student must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it.)

Conceptual

(The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together.)

Procedural

(How to do something, methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods.)

Metacognitive

(Knowledge of cognition in general as well as awareness and knowledge of one’s own cognition.)

The Cognitive Process Dimension

Create

(Put elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganize elements into a new pattern or structure.)

Generate a log of daily activities. Assemble a team of experts. Design an efficient project workflow. Create a learning portfolio.

Evaluate

(Make judgments based on criteria or standards.)

Check for consistency among sources. Determine relevance of results. Judge efficiency of sampling techniques. Reflect on one’s progress.

Analyze

(Break material into constituent parts and determine how parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose.)

Select the most complete list of activities. Differentiate high and low culture. Integrate compliance with regulations. Deconstruct one’s biases.

Apply

(Carry out or use a procedure in a given situation.)

Respond to frequently asked questions. Provide advice to novices. Carry out pH tests of water samples. Use techniques that match one’s strengths.

Understand

(Construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written and graphic communication.)

Summarize features of a new product. Classify adhesives by toxicity. Clarify assembly instructions. Predict one’s response to culture shock.

Remember

(Retrieve relevant knowledge from long-term memory.)

List primary and secondary colors. Recognize symptoms of exhaustion. Recall how to perform CPR. Identify strategies for retaining information.